Solution: ToFD – Time of Flight Diffraction

Solution: ToFD – Time of Flight Diffraction


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ToFD (Time of Flight Diffraction):

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"The TOFD (Time of Flight Diffraction) method is an ultrasonic testing method that is used primarily in the testing of weld seams."

About ToFD (Time of Flight Diffraction):

The TOFD method (Time of Flight Diffraction) is an ultrasonic testing method that is mainly used for the inspection of weld seams. While defects in the material are usually detected by analysing reflected signals, TOFD primarily uses the diffraction signals that originate from imperfections.

TOFD is one of the few inspection techniques that is able to describe a defect or discontinuity relatively accurately with length, depth and height. All other ultrasonic testing methods describe an incompleteness based on the reflection behaviour and not on the real extension.

Uses of ToFD

  • Weld seam testing according to EN ISO 10863 from a wall thickness of 6 mm up to 300 mm.
  • Testing of thick-walled pressure vessels according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in Section VIII (Replaces radiographic testing as primary test method).
  • Outside standardisation: crack depth determination and monitoring on welded structures (e.g. steel bridges) or corrosion tests as part of periodic inspections (e.g. clad pressure vessels and reactors). Here, the ultrasonic courses are simulated in advance in order to determine the optimal testing technique.

Advantages of ToFD procedures

Same results as with radiographic testing but the differences are:

  • Increased testing speed
  • No complex radiation protection measures
  • Wall thickness range up to 300mm normatively testable without the cost-intensive use of a linear accelerator

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